Its interesting to note that while the concept of a light source is universal, the ways in which different languages refer to it can vary greatly. In English, there are many ways to refer to "灯" (dēng), depending on the type of light source and its intended use.
1. Light: This is a general term that can refer to any type of light source, from a lamp to a flashlight to the sun. It can be used as a noun or an adjective ("a light bulb", "light sleep").
2. Lamp: This is a more specific term that refers to a light source that is usually stationary and designed for indoor use. It can refer to a table lamp, floor lamp, or even a hanging lamp such as a chandelier.
3. Bulb: This term is used specifically for the part of a lamp or light fixture that emits light. A "light bulb" can refer to a traditional incandescent bulb, a fluorescent bulb, or a more modern LED bulb.
4. Fixture: This term refers to the entire lighting unit, including any bulbs, shades, or frames. For example, a "ceiling fixture" refers to a light source that is mounted to the ceiling.
5. Lantern: This term refers to a portable light source that is designed to be carried from place to place, such as a camping lantern or a Chinese paper lantern.
6. Flashlight/Torch: These terms are used interchangeably to refer to a small, portable light source that is powered by batteries. In British English, "torch" is the more common term, while in American English, "flashlight" is more commonly used.
7. Candle: This term refers to a small, portable light source that is powered by a flame. Candles are often used for decorative purposes or to create a cozy atmosphere.
Overall, the English language provides a variety of ways to refer to different types of lights and lighting fixtures. From lamps to candles to flashlights, there is a term to describe just about any light source you can think of.